Saturday, 10 August 2013

Breast feeding mothers -- Nutritional care --.....................87113

The calorie needs are high in first 6 months of lactation but can be decreased to only additional 400 Kcal once the child is offered supplemental diet.

A mother of twins or triplets will definitely require more calories to meet requirements of feeding more than one infant.

It is vital that the calories are healthy calories from protein and high fiber carbohydrates and not fat. Two glasses of low fat milk and an additional bowl of oatmeal of broken wheat porridge is all that one needs to meet 500 Kcal in a day.

Calcium - The nursing mother should increase calcium intake to nearly 1000mg per day as compared to only 400 mg of calcium required by a non-nursing woman.
To consume 1000mg of calcium it is vital that you take these in a day:

At least 500 ml of low fat milk in a day
Eat two bowls of green leafy vegetables
Have a slice of low fat cheese or two egg whites or a piece of chiken/fish or two bowls of whole grained pulse

Vitamins - Folic acid, Vitamin A and D requirements increase during lactation. A healthy intake of green leafy vegetables and yellow/orange fruits like papaya, mangoes and vegetables like pumpkin, carrots will ensure a good vitamin intake.

Fluids - A mother feels thirsty due to constant feeding the baby. Drinking plenty of water, clear soups and juices is essential. This helps good milk volume as well.

It is advised that you drink a glass of water or other beverage every time you breastfeed. The Dietary Guidelines recommend that breastfeeding women not drink alcoholic beverages. Any alcohol that is in your bloodstream while you are breastfeeding can pass into breast milk. It is okay to have 2 cups of tea/coffee in a day. Soft drinks and diet beverages are best avoided.

Vitamin and mineral supplements can. In addition to eating a healthy diet, some breastfeeding women may need a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Consult your doctor about taking a nutritional supplement, and follow his or her advice. Be sure to tell your provider about any supplements you are already taking, to protect yourself against taking too much.

Recommended servings are based on a 2000 calorie diet. A pregnant or lactating woman’s needs may vary depending on age, sex, and activity level.

Milk Group—3 cups per day; be sure to choose
lower fat selections.
Count as 1 cup: 1 cup (8 ounces) 1% or skimmilk; 1 cup low-fat yogurt; 2 cups low-fat or fat-free cottage cheese; 1½ cups low-fat or fat free ice cream; 1½ ounces of low-fat hard cheese(cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss, or parmesan); 1/3 cup shredded cheese; 2 ounces processed cheese (American); 1 cup pudding (made with milk).

Meat and Beans Group—5.5 ounce equivalents(or the amount of a food that has a similar nutrition value as 5.5 ounces of meat).
Count as 1 ounce equivalent: 1 ounce lean meat, fish, or poultry; 1 egg; 1 slice lunch meat; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; 1/4 cup cooked kidney, pinto, or garbanzo beans, or 1/2 ounce of nuts or seeds

Fruit Group—2 cups.
Count as 1 cup: 1 cup (8 ounces) 100% juice; 1 large banana or orange; 1 small apple; 1 cupcanned fruit. Include one Vitamin C sourcesuch as an orange or orange juice every day.

Vegetable Group—2.5 cups.
Count as 1 cup: 1 cup cooked vegetables; 2 cups raw leafy vegetables;
1 cup (8 ounces) 100% juice. Include one serving of a dark green leafy vegetable every day.

Grain Group—6 ounce equivalents (or the amount of a food that has a similar nutrition
value to 6 ounces of a grain).
Count as 1 ounce equivalent: 1 slice bread; 1cup ready-to-eat cereal; 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta, 1/2 “mini” bagel, 1 small tortilla, Roti , chappati 6 inches in diameter; 1 pancake, pudla, dosa 4½ inches in diameter.

Oils—6 teaspoons.
Common portions: 1 tablespoon oil = 3 tsp;
1 tablespoon margarine = 2.5 tsp;
1 tablespoon mayonnaise = 2.5 tsp;
1 ounce nuts = 3 tsp;
2 tablespoons salad dressing = 2 tsp;
1/2 Avocado= 3 tsp; and 4 large olives (0.5 tsp).

Most cakes, pies, cookies, soft drinks, sugar, honey, candy, jams, jellies, gravies, butter, and sour cream have either an oil or solid fat and may be loaded with simple sugars. Eat them in moderation; save them to eat only if you need extra calories after eating the basic needed foods.

Tips to Remember:
• Eat a variety of foods.
• Choose foods with a lot of fiber—fruits, vegetables,dry beans,wholegrain bread and cereals, and other whole grain products.
• Exercise in moderation on a regular basis
• Drink plenty of fluids (64 ounces per day oreight 8-ounce glasses).
• Eat 3 to 5 meals and snacks per day.
• Pregnancy and breastfeeding increase the need for calories and most nutrients. A
women who is pregnant or breastfeeding needs to eat 300 more calories to provide the
extra energy the body needs. Remember, this is not a lot of food. Three hundred calories
is equal to a small snack, such as a half of apeanut butter and jelly sandwich and a glass of 1% milk.

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